Solar panel operation is not as complicated as you might think it is. Slight understanding of the construction of PV cells and solar panels would help you understand the functioning better. Let us start and move on one by one.
When we first look at a solar panel, we see a surface covered with glass and small constructions inside the glass sheet. It is a glass surface that comprises the solar cells in the board from any damage. Glass is used because it allows the sunlight to pass through as the same time when it protects the cells from damage. The glass sued is no ordinary one. It is a tempered glass sheet which does not allow any light to get reflected. The glass makes the entire structure sturdy and provides it the much-needed support.
Components of a solar cell:
- Two layers of semiconductor layer comprising of crystallized silicon,
- Bottom layer is made of boron which creates a bond with silicon crystals to produce a positive charge,
- The top layer of the PV cell is formed of phosphorous which helps build a negative charge when it bonds with silicon crystals,
- As discussed earlier, it has a glass covered surface that allows sunlight penetration.
- There is a PN junction created between the two charges that are positive and negative. This intersection facilitates electron movement.
- An external circuit makes the electrons flow in the desired path that is from the n-type side to the p-type side.
- This movement allows the production of electricity which completes the process.
These were three broad stages that explain the process of electricity production using a solar panel. A solar panel comprises of many cells as a single cell is not capable of absorbing much energy. Hence a group of them forms a board which altogether consumes just sufficient power to do the needful.
Advancement In The Technology:
With the rapid increase in solar power use now the solar panels are getting integrated with electricity grids. The integration facilitates the supply of electricity produced by solar power to the houses as naturally as possible. Large numbers of sizeable solar panels are installed at a place in an open space. Another way of charging up these central grid lines is the energy fed by personal solar panel devices at homes of various people. The overproduced electricity at home can be supplied back to the central grid which can be circulated to farther areas wherever needed.
Various ways predicted to increase the effectiveness of solar power are:
- Better forecasting to find out solar power production